December 12, 2020
Permanent openings may be required for ventilation or for conveyors. Noise pollution, also known as environmental noise or sound pollution, is the propagation of noise with ranging impacts on the activity of human or animal life, most of them harmful to a degree.The source of outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines, transport, and propagation systems. Ear protection, however, is not likely to be popular with factory workers unless they understand why it is necessary. Heavy machinery, power tools, schools of people and the necessary radio result in a chorus of noise for most of the day - sometimes at extremely loud levels. If the answer to these questions is yes then you should consider making these changes. A permanent increase in damping (in resonating parts of equipment, for example) will be achieved if the surface concerned is coated with a chemical compound of the kind used for under-sealing cars. It follows from the above discussion that there are two basic methods of reducing the noise at source, viz., (a) By reducing the amount of energy communicated to the vibrating surface; and. In an overall treatment, the walls should not be covered at the expense of ceiling unless the space is high and narrow, though local absorption on the walls will reduce the noise from nearby machines. Construction sites are inherently noisy, and they are a one of the most frequent sources of noise pollution on the planet. Changes in the shape of cutting tools may also be beneficial. Enclosures to Reduce Noise 5. Thus, in a building of heavy construction (such as a multi-storey factory), most of the noise escapes through the windows, which act as the “weak” parts of the enclosure. Consequently, sound absorption treatment does not attain its maximum effectiveness until machine spacing’s of more than 10 m are used. Subsequently, there should be proper supervision to ensure that the ear protectors are worn regularly. Potential noise sources that are often placed on the perimeter of factories include loading bays, dust or air extraction plant, compressor houses, boiler houses, and transformers. Beyond this, the noise is conducted directly by the bone structure of the head to the inner ear (by-passing the hearing protection). For this reason, porous sound-absorbing materials are in fact poor sound barriers. Machine rattle can be minimised by proper maintenance. Where the “weaker” part of the construction makes up half its total surface area, the total sound reduction factor cannot be more than 3 dB above the lower value (corresponding to the “weaker” part of the enclosure). To do this you can erect acoustic enclosures – which help to reduce noise levels from industrial activity – or erect barriers to block the direct path of noise. This is particularly needed if the doors form a large part of the total wall area. Here is why control of noise pollution in the workplace is important and how you can work to reduce it. The reason for this is the larger surface area in the case of an enclosed machine. But they… 4 Ways to Reduce Your Environmental Impact 4 simple ways your diet can have a reduced impact… Where flexible connections are impracticable, the introduction of bends into a pipe will reduce its efficiency as a conductor of vibration. Often a rattle can be eliminated merely by securing a loose panel. Avoid all metal on metal, vibrating machinery and you can also find silencers for many exhausts or noise producers. Noise can hardly be a major consideration in the choice of an industrial process; but it must be taken into account as one of the economic factors. The greatest number of people are protected from the noise by this means, and moreover, the noise control treatment is less expensive. The noise transmission paths round a partition must also be considered. Supporting structures for vibrating machines and other equipment will radiate less noise if they are frames than if they are cabinets or sheeted enclosures. The total intensity of sound at any point, therefore, will consist of a direct component and a reflected (or reverberant) component. If the top of the enclosure is open the noise reduction will be increased by placing the sound-absorbing material on the ceiling overhead. By controlling noise we can control negative health effects that noise pollution has on everyone. Among these two factors, the amplitude is determined by the resistance of the surface to oscillatory motion, and the power available to drive it. Science Fair Project # 2. Musical instruments sound should be controlled to desirable limits. Isolating machines from the floor will reduce the radiation of low-frequency noise, and also prevent its transmission to remote parts of the factory. Change can begin with our daily choices as individuals. Where impact is essential to the process (as in hammering and riveting, for example), the possibilities of reducing noise at the source are usually limited to using no more power than is absolutely necessary, and preventing unnecessary impacts. We consider now the case of an impulsive noise source. In many cases, a large area of material has been used with negligible effect because the mounting has been too stiff. The best partitions, for the purpose of noise reduction, are generally of “wet” construction, since they can be more easily made airtight. It is stored for a short time and released at a slower rate. Air-turbulence noise from air and steam exhausts can be simply and effectively reduced at the source, with a silencer that lowers the escape velocity of the exhaust. If the rigid connecting path is interrupted by a resilient material of the correct characteristics, however, the vibration transmitted (and the noise radiated) will be greatly reduced. This requires a reasonably stiff mount. The total noise reduction, however, is not equal to the sum of their individual noise reductions. To a lesser extent, the machine tools and other equipment used in the factory will also influence the noise level in the factory. Resonance can be prevented in machine parts by: Stiffening, which is generally easier, is satisfactory when the frequency range of the driving source is narrow and constant. An example of this is a casing for noisy gears (where the noise is radiated from the face of the gears). This arrangement increases the mass and reduces the amount of movement. A source of sound usually does not itself have a large enough area to radiate much noise. Some workers find them uncomfortable at first, but soon become used to them, and can wear them for long periods. Any parts of the enclosure construction that, although airtight, transmit sound more easily than the rest will have much the same effect. Vibration Isolation 3. If, on the other hand, the sources of noise are distributed throughout the factory, the ceiling is the most useful area to treat. To contain the noise, the cover should be heavy and aright. Noise Reduction at Source 2. The reason is that there is an upper limit to the amount of noise reduction that can be obtained locally at the ear. This means that if the surface area is halved, the intensity of the noise will be reduced by 3 dB; and at lower frequencies (i.e., larger wavelengths), the reduction will be much greater. Factories and industries should be located far from the residential areas. On the other hand, impact that is not essential to the process can often be quietened. Overall, the proper and regular maintenance of equipment is vital to help reduce deterioration that creates even more noise pollution in the industrial workplace. Their shielding effect is mainly limited to the more directional high frequencies. Textile and pollution: The textile process deals with production of fiber, yarn and fabric followed by pre and post chemical, mechanical process. In addition to weight of the wall and frequency of the noise concerned, the efficiency of an enclosure depends also on its completeness and uniformity. noise pollution Essay 400 words: The aim of the regulations is to simply reduce the likelihood of hearing loss as a result of excessive noise in their workplace – or other serious conditions such as tinnitus. We can Reduce Noise pollution by turning off appliances when not in use, use of earplugs, lowering the volume, planting more trees, regular maintenance of vehicles and machines etc. Since this is limited to about 20 dB, almost any sheet material having the strength to stand up to industrial use will be adequate. Designing your workplace to lower noise emission is one of the most time-consuming, but effective, ways to deal with the issue. If noise levels increase, at any point, be sure to check for worn down or faulty parts. Vibration Isolation 3. This article throws light upon the top seven ways of reducing noise in factories. Noise pollution isn't just annoying: it can cause deafness, fatigue, and even psychological problems. For example, noise caused by the handling and dropping of materials on hard surfaces can be reduced by the following methods: (a) By covering surfaces with resilient materials; (b) By using resilient materials for containers; and. Noise Pollution: How It Affects Your Body It doesn’t normally spring to mind as a disease causer,… 8 Ways To Reduce Your Risk Of Alzheimer's Most people haven’t heard of "type 3 diabetes". Where there is low-frequency vibration, however, the deflection necessary for adequate isolation may cause too great a movement of the machine. (f) Using silencers to control noise from automobiles, ducts, exhausts etc. To radiate sound effectively at 100 Hz, for example, a source must be of the order of a square metre in area; but at 1,000 Hz intense sound can be radiated from a source of only a few cm2. Upgradation in motor engines and other high sound-producing machines, establishing industries away from residential or urban settlements, providing industrial workers with ear-plugs, periodical checking of the silencers of vehicles, ban on band, musical instruments, and loudspeakers are some important ways to reduce noise pollution. In light of these regulations, reducing noise pollution in the workplace is vital for both your workers and your business. The absorption coefficients of some common sound-absorbing materials are given in Table 2. Fortunately, there are a handful of things using which you can reduce Noise Pollution from accumulating in the city. Doors should be provided with (and, if possible, give) the same degree of sound reduction as the rest of the enclosure. If the production area is divided into separate compartments (in the case of larger factories), it may be possible to grade these compartments in the order of noise produced, and to separate the very noisy areas from the relatively quieter ones. Noise is a widespread hazard in factories, especially when it comes to the pulp & paper and metal & mining industries. The typical decay of the noise level for an impulsive emission of sound every second is shown in Fig. The reason is that the sound must reach the absorbing material before it can have any effect on the former. If the dimensions of the radiating surface are much greater than the wavelength of the sound generated, the sound will be emitted primarily in one direction. Assessment of the health and well-being of workers is also required at this level. A flanking wall may transmit the sound from one side of the partition to the other by vibration caused by the airborne sound on the noisy side. Moreover, the directional characteristics of high- frequency noise should also be taken into account. The factory engineer should ensure that vibration is not transmitted to objects fixed to machines. Occupational noise, or industrial noise, is often a term used in occupational safety and health, as sustained exposure can cause permanent hearing damage.Occupational noise is considered an occupational hazard traditionally linked to loud industries … Alternatively, the pipe itself should be supported on vibration mounts for a considerable distance from the source. Any form of pollution that can trace its immediate source to industrial practices is known as industrial pollution. Even a flexible connection will transmit vibration if it is taut. Similarly, the sound transmission through flanking floors may be critical if the noise reduction required is more than about 45 db. Wherever it is not possible to reduce noise exposure to the permissible limit at the source or in the path, the workers exposed to high should be provided with suitable ear protector. A reduction in noise level of about 50 dB can be readily achieved by an ordinary building enclosure. Way # 1. One of the basic principles of noise control is that noise should be reduced as near the source as possible. Some man-made causes of noise pollution are: Construction activities; Social events; Industries using huge sound-emitting machines; Bursting of crackers; Domestic appliances Effects of noise pollution. Sound-absorbing material should be used inside an enclosure designed to reduce noise. Small factories (in the case of small-scale industrial units, for example) generally consist of only two main groups of accommodation viz.. Large factories, on the other hand, may have separate enclosed areas tor different parts of the production process, and thus may offer more scope for noise control. 2 as a function of average machine spacing. The enclosure must be lined on all surfaces with an effective sound absorbing material to prevent the noise being reflected around the inside and escaping out of the opening. Have industrial pollution control policies in place, especially if you operate a factory or production plant. Buildings and high walls between the noise source and the listeners will act as screens. But the sound reduction factor of a double wall increases more rapidly with frequency than that of a solid wall, giving relatively greater reductions at high frequencies. In existing factories, there may be no clear surface that can be lined with sound absorbing material; or its installation may greatly interfere with production. To increase the effectiveness of the double-leaf enclosure at low frequencies, the cavity must be made 15 to 30 cm wide. At the boundary surfaces, some of the sound will be reflected back, and back again indefinitely. A double- leaf enclosure, in its simplest form, is a cavity wall with no rigid ties across the cavity. When a jet of air is used for cleaning off, or for lifting parts from dies, the air pressure should be kept at the minimum required for the operation. In fact, the issue of industrial pollution has taken on grave importance for agencies trying to fight against environmental degradation. The vibration can be transmitted, in this way, for long distances with very little reduction. Since very few machine tool manufacturers give noise levels for their products at present (in India and other developing countries, at least) factory engineers should compare the noise produced by different makes of machine tools in operation. But as the distance between the source and the listener increases, the total sound level decreases to a point where the reflected component alone determines the noise level. Noise in industries is also an occupational hazard because of its attendant effects on workers' health. The region enclosed may be that of the whole factory (to reduce the noise reaching residential areas in the neighbourhood), or only a small area of it (a single machine, for example). On the other hand, increasing the damping will be more effective if the exciting force covers a wide range of frequency. It will be noticed from Table 2 that most of the porous sound- absorbing materials are also effective heat-insulating materials. The contamination emanating from the industries pollute the air, water, soil and they add to the light and noise pollution. The greatest benefit from the sound-absorbing treatment is realised when it is placed near the source, so as to intercept as much as possible of the direct sound before it has travelled far. Ways to achieve this include: Modifying the paths which noise travels to those exposed can be one of the most effective ways to reduce noise pollution in the workplace. 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